What Should Every ESL Teacher Know?

Download Nation’s book here.

15. Linked Skills


This chapter is about implementing linked skills to extend the opportunity to build skills (read, write, listen and speak) to the activities. These extensions can lead to better flow and fluency because the connections are visible and increase comment amount.

Notes from Chapter:

  • Link reading, writing, listening, and speaking together
  • Extend the content by having a series of task that builds on the 4 skills
  • It saves time because you get more out of each activity
  • conditions for repetitions
  • conditions for retrieval
  • conditions for creative use
  • conditions fos deliberate attention
  • create opportunities for students to derive their meanings from the content


  1. How am I linking activities to extend exercises, activities or tasks?
  2. How do my materials branch off and support these types of linked skills? 
  3. How can I organize my lesson plans to show branching?